|Chapters Links||Summary Text|
Trigger feature: that thing which causes us, or any animal or thing to act or respond
We need shortcuts as our environment is complex – we haven’t the energy or the time or capacity
One property of this: it makes us terribly vulnerable to anyone who does know how they work.
Our automatic tapes usually develop from psychological principles or stereotypes we have learned to accept.
With proper execution, exploiters need hardly strain a muscle to get their way, like Jujitsu.
Example: Contrast – the difference between two things depends upon how they are presented in relation to one another
Lifting a heavier object 1st will then make the lighter object “seem” lighter, and vice-versa.
A man might balk at the idea of spending $95 for a sweater, but if he has just bought a $495 suit, a $95 sweater doesn’t seem excessive.
We should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us. We feel obligated to do this.
Example: a university professor sent Christmas cards to a sample of perfect strangers, and a bunch of them sent cards back to him in return even though they never had heard or met him!
This is a unique adaptation of humans – we share things like food and skills in an honored network of obligation
Generally, there’s general distaste for people that don’t give in return: moocher, ingrate, welsher; and we can go to great lengths to avoid being considered one of their number.
And the rule is so strong that it overwhelms the influence of other factors sometimes, such as whether or not the person is liked or disliked, that normally would affect the decision to comply.
(Think about the buying of a coke for someone and then asking them to buy a raffle ticket study)
Example: In the 60s and 70s, the Krishnas would give a book or a flower to someone, wouldn’t take it back under any circumstances, and then would ask for a donation to their society.
This is why in mailers from people asking for donations they would send address labels, or a penny, or include a dollar, or a calendar.
Although the obligation to repay constitutes the essence of the reciprocity rule, it’s the obligation to receive that makes the rule easy to exploit
The “rejection-then-retreat” technique: asking for something way more than you really want so that you end up retreating, which is a concession on your part, and then someone often will reciprocate by agreeing to your second request
To combat it, the rule says that favors are to be met with favors; it doesn’t require that tricks be met with favors
Once we have made a choice or taken a stand, we will encounter personal and interpersonal pressures to behave consistency with that commitment
Example: racetrack bettors, 30 seconds before putting down the money, they had been tentative and uncertain; 30 second after, they were significantly more optimistic and self-assured.
We all fool ourselves from time-to-time in order to keep our thoughts and beliefs consistent with what we have already done or decided.
Example: beach blanket consistency
The person who’s beliefs, words, and deeds don’t match may be seen as indecisive, confused, two-faced; yet a person who is consistent is seen as having personal and intellectual strength.
Because it’s so typically in our best interests to be consistent, we fall into that habit of just doing it automatically.
So how do we engage the consistency force?
For the salesperson, getting a sale, ANY sale, is the first step, even if it is something really small.
You can use small commitments to manipulate a person’s self-image; you can use it to turn citizens into “public servants”, for example. And then they will naturally comply with a whole range of your requests that are consistent with this view of himself.
Once an active commitment is made, then self-image is squeezed from both sides by consistency pressures
Tactic: Having the customer fill out the sales form, rather than the salesman, cuts the number of cancellations drastically.
Public commitments tend to be lasting commitments.
Written commitments can be more effective than verbal ones because they require more work
the severity of an initiation ceremony significantly heightens a newcomer’s commitment to a group.
So commitments are most effective in changing a person’s self-image and future behavior when they are active, public, and effortful. But what’s more powerful?
The lowball tactic is promising something to get the person to make a commitment, and then when a commitment is made, to take away that promise.
How to combat it?
It states that one means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.
Example: canned laughter.
Saying a product is “fastest-growing” or “largest-selling” helps with social proof
Caveat Robert says “Since 95 percent of the people are imitators and only 5 percent initiators, people are persuaded more by the actions of others than by any proof we can offer.”
When there is uncertainty, of ourselves, or the situation is unclear, we are most likely to look to and accept the actions of others as correct.
Your best strategy when in need of emergency help is to reduce the uncertainties of those around you concerning your condition and their responsibilities; don’t allow bystanders to come to their own conclusions because they may not.
Another important condition is here: similarity
Widely publicized agression, suicide, etc. has the tendency to spread to similar victims. (Protests as well).
How to say no?
We most prefer to say yes to the request of someone we know and like. Sometimes we feel pressured to do so.
Example: A charity request from a friend or neighbor is much harder to turn down.
Sometimes just the mention of the friend’s name is enough
Additionally, they first get us to like THEM.
Physical attractiveness helps us to like others
Similarity: We like people who are simliar to us; thus, we can increase others’ compliance to us by appearing similar to them.
Compliments: Flattery or simple claims of affinity
Contact and Cooperation
Conditioning and Association
We are trained from birth that obedience to proper authority is right and disobedience is wrong
Our obedience frequently takes place in a click, whirr fashion, with little or no conscious deliberation.
The danger is when someone who’s a legitimate authority is wrong, and those beneath him/her stop thinking and then only start reacting.
And sometimes authority principle is used without real authority being provided, or proved.
Also, we’re often vulnerable to the symbols of authority in the same way as to the real authority
Titles give the appearance of authority
Height or Weight
Importance in one field
To combat this, we can ask
By establishing their basic truthfulness on minor issues, compliance professionals can be more believable on the more important aspects of their argument:
Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited – the idea of loss plays a large role in human decision making.
We’re often more motivated by the thought of losing something than by the though of gaining something of equal value.
The deadline tactic is a form of scarcity
Things that are difficult to possess are often more valuable than those that are easy to get.
For scarcity, as opportunities become less available, we lose freedoms; and we HATE to lose any sort of freedom.
Furthermore, information doesn’t have to be censored, but scarce: we may find it more persuasive f we think we can’t get it elsewhere.
A drop from abundance to scarcity, or newly experienced scarcity, is more powerful.
Further powerful is a drop from abundance to scarcity thru the process of social demand
To combat this